The building of deposits (scaling and fouling) on membrane surfaces is usually unavoidable.
However, it can be reduced to an acceptable level by using an adequate chemical treatment.
These guidelines should help you to select the appropriate product for the desired treatment.
The increased demand for more sustainability of inhibitor systems in open cooling water circuit applications has dominated much of the development activity in this area in recent years. Biodegradability has been a top priority in this context due to ever more restrictive legislation in Europe regarding the discharge of chemicals into flowing waters.
The best way to prevent the risk of bacterial growth in water systems is to monitor and to control the microorganisms (biofilm) attached to pipe walls. Three years of laboratory research led 2 CNRS teams (UMR 6008 and UPR 15) to develop a tool designed to determine the average biofilm thickness. The average biofilm thickness measurements carried out on pilot plants fed with natural water were sufficiently accurate and sensitive to monitor the formation and development of biofilm in a water system and to determine the efficiency of the applied treatments. The implementation of appropriate treatments (type and dose of the treatment product) leads to a significant reduction or even complete removal of the porous layer on the material surface. The reduction of the attached biomass, measured by the sensor, is connected to the decrease of the bacterial density attached to the material (viable flora in PCA environment).
To protect boilers and all belonging components from corrosion during a stoppage appropriate actions are required. Corrosion can already occur during a stoppage within few hours if no appropriate conservation-method took place in advance.
The process of conservation depends on the intended duration of shut-down, the boiler water quality, type of boiler and the current treatment.
La vapeur est une source principale d'énergie dans beaucoup d'industries, utilisée pour la production d’électricité, le chauffage et de multiples applications.
Pour cette raison et afin d’optimiser leur efficacité, les chaudières exigent les dernières règles de l’art en matière de traitement d’eau.
El vapor es el principal recurso energético en la mayoría de industrias, ya sea con propósitos caloríficos o como procesos de vapor. Por esta razón, las calderas requieren un perfecto programa de tratamiento de aguas para optimizar su eficacia operacional.
BKG Water Solutions ofrece una tecnología innovadora, Cetamine®, basada en aminas filmantes, que representan el último avance en el tratamiento de aguas para calderas.
Il vapore è la fonte primaria di energia per molti settori industriali, essendo utilizzato per produrre elettricità e calore o come vapore di processo. Pertanto, le caldaie necessitano di un trattamento dell’acqua all’avanguardia per ottimizzare la loro efficienza operativa.
BKG Water Solutions offers applications to prevent
Chemicals for treating cooling water to prevent deposits and corrosion processes in cooling circuits are expected to meet high standards not only in regard to performance, but also in regard to environmental compatibility.
This work was carried out to have a better understanding of the synergistic effect between phosphonocarboxylic acid salts (PCAS) and fatty amines (FA) for the corrosion protection of a carbon steel in a 200 mg l-1 NaCl solution. These compounds, combined with a biocide at low dosage, are used for water treatment in cooling circuits. First, electrochemical impedance measurements were performed to verify the inhibitive properties of the mixtures. Among the different concentrations tested, maximum efficiency was reached for the mixture containing 200 mg l-1 PCAS + 50 mg l-1 FA. Then, electrochemical measurements (current voltage curves and impedance diagrams) were combined with surface analysis (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) for each compound at the optimised concentrations and for the mixture [...].
C. Foret, G. Stoianovici, G. Chaussec, A. de Bache, C. zum Kolk, W. Hater
Metal corrosion in industrial water systems like cooling circuits is a major problem. Excessive corrosion does not only lead to serious damages of installations but also causes significant environmental and economic repercussions. To reduce or eliminate these problems, water used in cooling circuits is usually chemically processed and treated with inhibitive formulations containing corrosion inhibitors.
In the past, efficient protective treatments of carbon steels were based on inorganic inhibitors (e.g. chromates, nitrites)  but today their use is restricted due to their high toxicity. Since the 1960’s, other treatments using organic compounds like phosphonates, molybdates and amines have been proposed because of their non-toxic nature. Nevertheless, high concentrations are necessary to obtain good inhibition [2, 3].
For many years, the prevention of corrosion in cooling systems is achieved by film forming amines (FFA) which are often referred to as fatty amines or polyamines [4, 5, 6]. They are able to form a mono-molecular film or layer adsorbed on the metal surfaces, which constitutes a homogeneous protective barrier against corrosion.
Today, due to a lack of knowledge and systematic research about the influence of chemical structure on the anticorrosion properties, especially for FFA, this paper presents the results of studies with new inhibitive formulations based on amines for cooling systems.
Comparative studies have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of film forming amines (FFA), and to optimize their inhibitive properties against the corrosion of carbon steel.
In this aim, the present work is devoted to study the behavior of the carbon steel, in presence of different inhibitive formulations based of FFA of different structures, by steady-state electrochemical measurements, impedance spectroscopy measurements using a rotating disc electrode and pilot test in laboratory. From the data obtained, it is intended to develop structure/property relations in order to find optimal corrosion inhibitors also taking into account ecological and economical aspects.
Click here to read or download the article:
A combined general approach to the development of corrosion inhibitors for industrial applications based on electrochemical measurements along with both standard and accelerated corrosion tests has been developed. This development concept is exemplarily described for new inhibitor systems for cooling water circuits and other industrial systems.
The prevention of mineral scales and sludge presents a major challenge for cooling tower management throughout a broad variety of industrial processes. The universal applications of dispersants has proven itself to be a cost-effective solution to prevent the precipitation of mineral particles contained in feeding waters for industrial cooling systems. In this paper, an integrated approach to the development and application of new ecologically friendly dispersant systems for cooling water as an example for such processes is presented.
Film forming inhibitors are widely used in refineries and petrochemical units. Evaluating their efficiency in the short term is a daily challenge for treatment companies. Well accepted in this particular industry is the so called wheel tester, which is based on small weight loss of steel coupons. Although it has the advantage of being easy to apply and to evaluate, it also has some significant drawbacks because of its lack of standardization and limited level of reproducibility. To verify the results from the wheel tester, classical polarization corrosion tests under similar experimental conditions have been performed. Various conditions such as inhibitor concentration and temperature were studied applying both methods, in particular using film forming corrosion inhibitors of different chemical compositions. The evaluation of the data shows a good correlation between both methods, as the rankings of the inhibitors regarding their efficiency were analogous.
The combination of both methods enables the reliable evaluation of inhibitors and formulations with good reproducibility in a relatively short time. This generates a flexible, reliable and fast method to develop and optimize organic based film forming corrosion inhibitors. This concept is described for the development of corrosion inhibitors intended to be used in refineries distillation units’ overhead systems.
Boiler water systems as universally used throughout industry are usually protected against corrosion by addition of oxygen scavengers to the boiler feed water. Frequently used additives today are based on diethylhydroxyalimine (DEHA) and its derivatives.A shortcoming of DEHA-based oxygen scavengers is the sluggish kinetics of oxygen captures in the feeding waters at low and medium temperatures. The usual remedy for this is the addition of co-scavengers, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most frequently used. The need for hydroquinone replacement arises from its unfavourable ecological properties, which put DEHA-HQ formulations under increasing pressure from environmental regulations.
Water treatment products must be technically and economically effective; in addition, they have to be environmentally compatible, because they are generally discharged directly into the receiving water. Teamwork between product development, application technology and ecology from the beginning of the development of water treatment products leads to economically and ecologically optimised products, specially tailored for use in cooling systems.
The prevention of mineral scales and sludge presents a major challenge for industrial water systems management, e.g. cooling towers, throughout a wide variety of industrial processes. Besides threshold-active substances (hardness stabilizing agents), that inhibit the formation of insoluble precipitates such as calcium carbonate from over-saturated solutions, dispersing agents are widely applied in order to prevent settling of non-dissolved matter whithin water bearing systems. [...] a new laboratory method has been developed measuring scattering of light in dependence of time.
Drinking water as a basic food stuff is a valuable and limited good and thus underlies a high level of regulation to ensure its quality for the customer. The European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) provides microbiological and chemical parameters that define the minimum quality standards within the European Community, which have been transferred into national laws by the member states. In Germany, the new Drinking Water Ordinance (Trinkwasserverordnung, TrinkwV) has come into force January 1st, 2003.
Ferrocid® 4601 inhibits the microbiological growth and eliminates existing micro-organisms, like bacteria, fungi, and algae. It is also active in the control of Legionella pneumophila bacteria, which causes Legionnaire's disease (Legionellosis). Ferrocid ® 4601 gives very good results in systems with high risk of process contamination.
Gilumat® Cooling Tower Controller Turkish leaflet.
Um einwandfreie Wasserqualität bis zum Verbraucher zu gewährleisten, werden in vielen Verteilungsnetzen Inhibitoren auf Silikat- und Phosphatbasis eingesetzt. Die anschlussfertige mobile Kompaktversuchsanlage wurde für Wasserversorgungs-Unternehmen entwickelt, die Versuche zur grundsätzlichen Fragestellung einer Trinkwasser-Inhibierung durchführen oder eine bestehende Inhibierungsmaßnahme optimieren wollen.
Ziel solcher Versuche ist es, den optimalen Inhibitor und/oder die Mindest-Dosiermenge zu ermitteln. Die Anlage kann mit zwei bis maximal fünf Versuchsstrecken bestückt werden, wobei die Versuchsstrecken mit verschiedenen Inhibitoren (z.B. Integrations-Verfahren (vgl. TI 309), Silikat/Phosphat-Kombinationen, carbonataktiviertes Silikat, Phosphat) behandelt werden können.
Legionella pneumophila was first identified in 1976 as the cause of an atypical pneumonia, so-called Legionnaires´ disease, at a American Legion meeting of US war veterans in Philadelphia. In addition to this severe type of lung infection, with a fatality rate ob approximately 15%, legionellae can also cause influenza-like Pontiac Fever.
Legionella pneumophila wurde erstmals im Jahre 1976 bei den Teilnehmern einer Versammlung von Kriegsveteranen in Philadelphia (USA) als Auslöser einer atypischen Pneumonie, der sogenannten Legionärskrankheit, identifiziert. Neben dieser schweren Form einer Lungenentzündung mit einer Todesrate von ungefähr 15% können Legionellen auch das Pontiac-Fieber mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen auslösen.
The BKG Water Solutions OsmotechTM product range covers Membrane Cleaners suitable for most membranes on the market.
Frequently membrane cleaning is necessary to:
• maximize the production output of the membrane plant
• avoid irreversible scaling and fouling on the membrane
• prolong the life of the membrane
• ensure the best possible permeate quality
• minimize the energy costs
• minimize the overall process cost of the membrane production
The best cleaning method for membranes depends on the type of the membrane, the nature of the deposit, and the material of the deposit. The cleaner is selected according to the membrane type and to the deposits on it. It should be taking into account that pH variations may cause the formation of precipitate within the feed water.
Film-forming amines have been successfully used for a number of decades to treat boiler feedwater, especially in industrial power plants. The results of recent studies of their properties and the results of operational trials should close the existing gaps in our knowledge of film-forming amines, so that this technology can be incorporated into the appropriate guidelines for the treatment of steam generators.
Click here to see the full article:
First we would like to thank you for your willingness to respond to representative questions from our readers. Let us start with the most frequently asked question: Who are the typical users of your chemicals? Are these public and private utilities, industrial steam and power generators, or operators of combined cycle units with heat recovery steam generators?
Answer #1First of all, I would like to thank PPChem to give us the possibility to explain our technology to their readers. As not everyone may be familiar with the range of chemical additives that BK Giulini is offering I would like to briefly introduce our technology of film forming amines for steam generators, which we are offering under the brand name ‘Cetamine® V’. In this interview, I am not dealing with the conventional treatment programs for steam generators (Ferrolix®). [...]
In this paper, the characteristics of the cracker's steam system are first described. Particular aspects of the conversion are then discussed. Finally, the experience gained and insights obtained into the polyamine treatment during the first three years are elaborated.
Authors: Roy van Lier, Gerard Janssen, Jo Savelkoul
This work is devoted to the corrosion inhibition of a carbon steel in a 200 mg l-1 NaCl solution by an original multicomponent inhibitor: fatty amines in association with phosphonocarboxylic acid salts and a biocide at low dosage. Its principal advantage is the absence of toxicity and its biodegradability. Steady-state current-voltage curves were combined with electrochemical impedance measurements to characterise the inhibitive properties of each compound and to optimize the concentration of the compounds in the mixture.
Reuse of water and avoiding the use of scarce potable water for the industrial water supply is in compliance with DOW´s resource productivity goals, as well as the 1995 to 2005 Environmental Health and Safety (EH & S) goals.
An integrated water scheme at DOW´s location in Terneuzen (NL) was implemented) with two-time reuse of water reducing the three traditional water streams to only one.
Scaling calculations are usually only based on the silicate concentration in the feed water, because suitable test methods for the interaction of silica with other ions are missing. As the contents of the other ions, i.e. above all calcium and magnesium are not considered, this method is incorrect and can lead to substantial problems.
In this paper first the results of laboratory experiments investigating the influence of different cations on the behaviour of supersaturated solutions of silica in different test waters are discussed. Subsequently, the results of the new membrane-based test method considering the influence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, the pH-value and the addition of antiscalants are discussed.
Different methods of analysis made it possible to distinguish three groups of silicates: ‘monomeric’, ‘polymeric’ and ‘filterable’. Ca2+ and Mg2+-ions have a strong influence on the formation of filterable silicate and on the kinetics of the formation of the different silicate species.
The ‘polymeric silica’ is mainly responsible for the membrane scaling, and the kinetic of its formation is strongly influenced by the cations and the pH-Value.
The antiscalant Osmotech 1309 makes it possible to operate the plant at significantly higher recovery rates, resp. at higher SiO2-concentrations.
1.1. Chilling systems
1.2. Tight systems
1.3. Un-tight systems
1.4. Process systems
2. WATER REQUIREMENTS
2.2. Water Requirements
2.3. Water Quality
2.4. Problems occurring in Closed Cooling Systems
2.5. Closed System Start-up
3. TREATMENT CONCEPTS
3.1. Nitrite based inhibitors
3.2. Molybdate based inhibitors
3.3. Copper Inhibitors
3.4. Korrodex 700
3.7. Special applications
4. TREATMENT APPLICATION
4.2. Dosing Pump
4.3. Drum Pump
5. MONITORING CLOSED SYSTEMS
5.1. Standard Monitoring
5.2. Monitoring Schedule
5.3. Contingency Monitoring
6. TROUBLE SHOOTING
6.1. Red/Brown Water Occurrence
6.2. Unknown Water Losses
6.3. Copper plating
6.4. Heat-Exchanger Failure
6.5. Water Change
BKG Water Solutions bietet für die Trinkwasseraufbereitung speziell für den zentralen Einsatz in Wasserwerken entwickelte Technologien und Lösungen an: Beginnend bei der Flockung über Korrosionsinhibitoren bis hin zu den anfallenden Reststoffen.
Calcium und Magnesium, die sogenannten Härtebildner im Trinkwasser, sind natürliche und durchaus erwünschte Bestandteile im Wasser. Der erwachsene Mensch benötigt pro Tag ca. 800 mg Calcium und 300 mg Magnesium. Ein "hartes" Wasser ist im allgemeinen auch wesentlich schmackhafter als ein "weiches", mineralstoffarmes Wasser. Diesen Vorteilen steht oft der Wunsch der Verbraucher nach "weichem" Trinkwasser entgegen, ein Wunsch der nahezu immer auf die technischen Vorteile eines kalkarmen Trinkwassers abzielt: Kalk, der die Heizung der Waschmaschine zerstört, verkalkte Kaffeemaschinen, verstopfte Perlatoren am Wasserhahn, Kalkstein in Heißwassergeräten. In vielen Versorgungsgebieten, in denen hartes bis sehr hartes Trinkwasser verteilt wird, ist der Trinkwasser-Produzent mit der ständigen Forderung der Abnehmer nach weicherem Wasser konfrontiert. Neben der Möglichkeit einer zentralen Enthärtung sind auch geeignete Inhibitoren in der Lage, unerwünschte Härteausfällungen wirksam zu verhindern.
Im DVGW Regelwerk, Arbeitsblatt W 512, wird das "Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit von Wasserbehandlungsanlagen zur Verminderung der Steinbildung" beschrieben.
Comprehensive solutions for water purification - download our information leaflet here:
Estás aquí : HomeInvisibleTechnical Library